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Do Local Foods Stand A Chance?

Do Local Foods Stand A Chance?


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As the local food movement becomes more popular, many agricultural and economic experts are beginning to question whether small, local farmers and businesses will be able to hold up in a capitalist economic structure, and whether they should even be elevated from a small-scale movement at all.

The local food movement has been praised for its ability to forge connections between farm and table and to give consumers a better sense of where their food comes from. Additionally, consumers are beginning to realize that local produce tastes better and is more nutrient-dense than the produce that arrives at their supermarkets in the back of a truck. This heightened sense of connection, however, comes at a steep cost, causing tension between the farmers who would like to bring in maximum revenue for their efforts and consumers who are accustomed to buying the cheapest food possible.

Are the higher costs worth it? Joanne Neft, former agricultural marketing director for Placer County, argues that, while consumers may pay a higher price up front for their local produce, they may be saving much more in terms of future hospital bills associated with high obesity and diabetes rates, as well as from the consequences of environmental degradation.

Despite the health and environmental benefits to the local foods movement, however, critics have argued that the movement will never be able to make a universal difference unless it is adapted to work in the capitalist marketplace, which comes with its own set of issues.

Steven Dambeck, a farmer and co-founder of Apollo Olive Oil fears that integrating the local foods movement into the capitalist market structure will reward the local food producers, and they will then choose to compromise quality for a lower, more competitive price. This adaptation to the capitalist marketplace would, he claims, distort the movement’s values, as occurred with the organic farming movement.

In the coming years, agricultural experts, economists, and environmental advocates will have to work together to come up with a system that achieves a balance. The local movement must maintain the small-scale feel that is essential to its core values, while giving it a set market structure that will make local foods a more feasible global solution for health and environmental issues.


Genshin Impact Cooking guide: recipe locations, ingredients and character specialty dishes

You can get up to a lot of different things in Genshin Impact, but an absolutely major component is Cooking. Cooking requires you to simply head up to a stove - which are found all over in cities and at campfires - and doing so brings up a menu that lets you cook delicious meals using a wide range of ingredients.

Cooking is absolutely vital in Genshin Impact, as eating the fare that you prepare will give you powerful buffs that will in turn allow you take on more of the game's content. Each dish has a different speciality - some will buff you for dealing more damage, some will heal or revive you, and others will make things like climbing easier by gifting you more stamina. Meals are powerful, especially if you run a team without a healer.

In this guide, we list off every Genshin Impact recipe and what ingredients you'll need to create them - including the secret recipes certain characters can cook. If you want more Genshin Impact help, we highly suggest giving our guide on the Wishes & Gacha Banners and our Anemoculus locations list a read.

How to Cook in Genshin Impact

As mentioned, to cook in Genshin Impact you simply need to head up to a stove anywhere in the world - the first one of these you encounter will be in your starter city, but they're scattered right across the world in towns but also at camp sites. Naturally, you'll need ingredients - these are picked up as loot, purchased in shops, and some ingredients have to be processed before use.

When you first start cooking a particular dish, you'll have to cook it manually by playing a little mini-game. All you have to do is stop the indicator when it's in the right place - it's all pretty obvious. The indicator has a lighter area that's more of a yellow tone and a darker area that's closer to orange - if you hit the orange that's 'perfect' and will garner the maximum effect for your chosen dish. As well as this, your 'proficiency' cooking that dish will be increased.

Once you hit maximum proficiency with a recipe, you'll be able to automatically cook that without playing the mini-game.

In addition to the standard recipes, it's worth noting that several characters in Genshin Impact have exclusive 'specialty' dishes they can cook. These are accessed by cooking an existing recipe with a specific character - and if you're lucky, it'll trigger an enhanced version of that dish only that character can cook. For instance, Xiangling can cook the Black-Back Perch Stew and instead get the Wanmin Restaurant's Boiled Fish recipe - which is signifncantly more powerful. All of these are listed below, nested under their 'parent' recipes.


Best Long Shelf-Life Non-Perishable Food Items You Can Buy

1. Staple survival foods that are non-perishable

You’ll need to be really careful about keeping these completely dry and free from moisture, but if you can manage to store these in air-tight containers, they will keep for an incredibly long period of time.

  • Rice: white, wild, jasmine, Arborio and basmati (brown rice does not keep forever)
  • Hardtack crackers/biscuits
  • Dried cranberries

2. Other survival foods that are non-perishable

Although some of these food items will change texture, thickening or hardening over time, they will only change in terms of taste. These survival foods never spoil, and will still remain edible long after their flavour has changed.

  • Honey
  • Molasses
  • Maple syrup
  • Dried lentils
  • Dried beans
  • Dried split peas
  • Dry mix Jello
  • Gobstoppers

3. Survival foods that if frozen are non-perishable

Though these non-perishable foods last a long time if they’re left out in the open, if they’re frozen, their shelf life extends to indefinite amounts of time.

  • Dried pasta
  • Noodles
  • Dried fruits (such as raisins, dried cranberries, dried cranberries, dried cherries, dried apricots, dried mangoes, dates, dried blueberries, dried plums, banana chips, figs)
  • Instant/freeze-dried coffee

4. Base ingredients that are non-perishable

Apparently, these base ingredients can be the perfect survival food. According to some sources, if you simply keep them unused, in an air-tight container and completely free of humidity and moisture, and you’re likely to never have to buy them again.

5. Seasonings that are non-perishable

Seasonings are also excellent survival foods, as they’re food that lasts forever, and only get weaker in strength of taste over long periods of time. Like with the base ingredients, keep these in an air-tight container, free of moisture and humidity, and they’re likely to never expire.

  • Salt
  • Sugar
  • Pepper
  • Spices
  • Dried herbs
  • Pure flavour extracts (pure vanilla extract, etc.)

6. Condiments that are non-perishable

While these foods will likely change in taste after some time, they remain safe to eat indefinitely. The best way to keep these non-perishable foods is in an airtight container, free of moisture, and in a dark, cool spot, away from sunlight. This type of storage will keep your non-perishable food condiments tasting better for longer.

  • Vinegar (white, apple, balsamic, raspberry, rice wine, and red wine vinegar)
  • Worcestershire sauce (unopened)

7. Survival drinks that are non-perishable

Non-perishable drinks are another asset you can add to your survival food stockpile. Any alcohol over 10% that does not contain eggs, milk, and other dairy derivatives (ex. not Baileys, Tia Maria, etc.) should typically last forever in a stockpile. Alcohol also has disinfectant and medicinal properties, so keeping it stocked, especially when it never goes bad, is definitely a good idea for any prepper. Learn more about the best alcohol to stockpile here.


The Best Survival Foods And Drinks: Non-Perishables That Can Outlive You

Whether you’re sick of throwing out food that’s long past its expiry date, or whether you’re working on preparing a food stockpile in case of an emergency, consumables that practically never spoil can be a huge asset to your household. This article lists non-perishable food items that not only have long shelf lives, but if taken care of properly, these foods stand a chance of never going bad within your lifetime.

These ideal survival foods will of course need to be stored the right way in order to retain their practically never-ending shelf life. The absolute best place to keep a food stockpile is in a dark, cool, and dry spot, free of humidity, moisture, direct sunlight, and extreme temperatures. Keeping consumables in an air-tight container, or better yet, vacuum packed, is also very important to increasing shelf life.

Although many non-perishable survival foods may change flavour and/or texture over the years, they remain edible and perfectly safe for consumption over indefinite periods of time. Use your senses to judge whether or not food with long shelf life has expired. If it smells off, has become too soft, or has developed mold, it’s better not to eat the item.

1. Staple survival foods that are non-perishable

You’ll need to be really careful about keeping these completely dry and free from moisture, but if you can manage to store these in air-tight containers, they will keep for an incredibly long period of time.

  • Rice: white, wild, jasmine, arborio and basmati (brown rice does not keep forever)
  • Hardtack crackers/biscuits
  • Dried cranberries

2. Other survival foods that are non-perishable

Although some of these food items will change texture, thickening or hardening over time, they will only change in terms of taste. These survival foods never spoil, and will still remain edible long after their flavour has changed.

  • Honey
  • Molasses
  • Maple syrup
  • Dried lentils
  • Dried beans
  • Dried split peas

3. Survival foods that if frozen are non-perishable

Though these non-perishable foods last a long time if they’re left out in the open, if they’re frozen, their shelf life extends to indefinite amounts of time.

  • Dried pasta
  • Noodles
  • Dried fruits (such as rasins, dried cranberries, crasins, dried cherries, dried apricots, dried mangoes, dates, dried blueberries, dried plums, banana chips, figs)
  • Instant/freeze-dried coffee

4. Base ingredients that are non-perishable

Apparently, these base ingredients can be the perfect survival food. According to some sources, if you simply keep them unused, in an air-tight container and completely free of humidity and moisture, and you’re likely to never have to buy them again.

5. Seasonings that are non-perishable

Seasonings are also excellent survival foods, as they’re food that lasts forever, and only get weaker in strength of taste over long periods of time. Like with the base ingredients, keep these in an air-tight container, free of moisture and humidity, and they’re likely to never expire.

  • Salt
  • Sugar
  • Pepper
  • Spices
  • Dried herbs
  • Pure flavour extracts (pure vanilla extract, etc.)

6. Condiments that are non-perishable

While these foods will likely change in taste after some time, they remain safe to eat indefinitely. The best way to keep these non-perishable foods is in an airtight container, free of moisture, and in a dark, cool spot, away from sunlight. This type of storage will keep your non-perishable food condiments tasting better for longer.

  • Vinegar (white, apple, balsamic, raspberry, rice wine, and red wine vinegar)
  • Worcestershire sauce (unopened)

7. Survival drinks that are non-perishable

Non-perishable drinks are another asset you can add to your survival food stockpile. Any alcohol over 10% that does not contain eggs, milk, and other dairy derivatives (ex. not Baileys, Tia Maria, etc.) should typically last forever in a stockpile. Alcohol also has disinfectant and medicinal properties, so keeping it stocked, especially when it never goes bad, is definitely a good idea for any prepper.

About Elise Xavier

Spyderco diehard and shutterbug. Into prepping and self-sufficiency.
Coauthor and photographer of survival blog More Than Just Surviving.

Other Survival Solutions(This are the most reliable survival books that you can find)


The Inefficiency of Local Food

Two members of Congress earlier this month introduced legislation advancing a food reform movement promising to help resolve the great environmental and nutritional problems of the early 21 st century. The intent is to remake the agricultural landscape to look more like it did decades ago. But unless the most basic laws of economics cease to hold, the smallholder farming future envisioned by the local farming movement could jeopardize natural habitat and climate change mitigation efforts, while also endangering a tenuous and temporary victory in the battle against human hunger.

The “Local Farms, Food and Jobs Act” sponsored by Senator Sherrod Brown of Ohio and Representative Chellie Pingree of Maine, throws about $200 million to local farm programs. That’s a rounding error in the $3.7 trillion federal budget. But the bill follows on a federal rule that gives preference to local farms in contract bidding for school lunches. It also builds on high-profile advocacy by Michelle Obama, who has become a leader of the food reform movement, joining the likes of Michael Pollan, the author of The Omnivore’s Dilemma, and famed-chef Alice Waters. The bill’s introduction came as the world population hit 7 billion, a milestone that provides a stark reminder of the challenge agriculture faces to feed a world population expected to grow to 9 billion by 2050. Experts estimate that in the next 50 years, the global food system likely needs to produce as much food as it did in the previous 10,000 years combined.

Amid heightened concern about global climate change, it has become almost conventional wisdom that we must return to our agricultural roots in order to contain the carbon footprint of our food by shortening the distance it travels from farm to fork, and by reducing the quantity of carbon-intensive chemicals applied to our mono-cropped fields.

But implicit in the argument that local farming is better for the environment than industrial agriculture is an assumption that a “relocalized” food system can be just as efficient as today’s modern farming. That assumption is simply wrong. Today’s high crop yields and low costs reflect gains from specialization and trade, as well as scale and scope economies that would be forsaken under the food system that locavores endorse.

Specialization and Trade

Economists have long recognized the welfare gains from specialization and trade. The case for specialization is perhaps nowhere stronger than in agriculture, where the costs of production depend on natural resource endowments, such as temperature, rainfall, and sunlight, as well as soil quality, pest infestations, and land costs. Different crops demand different conditions and vary in their resilience to shocks. So California, with mild winters, warm summers, and fertile soils produces all U.S.-grown almonds and 80 percent of U.S. strawberries and grapes. Idaho, on the other hand, produces 30 percent of the country’s russet potatoes because warm days and cool nights during the season, combined with rich volcanic soils, make for ideal growing conditions.

In 2008, according to the USDA, Idaho averaged 383 hundredweight of potatoes per acre. Alabama, in contrast, averaged only 170 hundredweight per acre. Is it any wonder Idaho planted more acres of potatoes than Alabama?

Forsaking comparative advantage in agriculture by localizing means it will take more inputs to grow a given quantity of food , including more land and more chemicals—all of which come at a cost of carbon emissions.

It is difficult to estimate the impact of a truly locavore farming system because crop production data don’t exist for crops that have not historically been grown in various regions. However, we can imagine what a “pseudo-locavore” farming system would look like—one in which each state that presently produces a crop commercially must grow a share proportional to its population relative to all producers of the crop. I have estimated the costs of such a system in terms of land and chemical demand.

My conservative estimates are that under the pseudo-locavore system, corn acreage increases 27 percent or 22 million acres, and soybean acres increase 18 percent or 14 million acres. Fertilizer use would increase at least 35 percent for corn, and 54 percent for soybeans, while fuel use would climb 23 percent and 34 percent, for corn and soybeans, respectively. Chemical demand would grow 23 percent and 20 percent for the two crops, respectively.

In order to maintain current output levels for 40 major field crops and vegetables, a locavore-like production system would require an additional 60 million acres of cropland, 2.7 million tons more fertilizer, and 50 million pounds more chemicals . The land-use changes and increases in demand for carbon-intensive inputs would have profound impacts on the carbon footprint of our food, destroy habitat and worsen environmental pollution.

It’s not even clear local production reduces carbon emissions from transportation. The Harvard economist Ed Glaeser estimates that carbon emissions from transportation don’t decline in a locavore future because local farms reduce population density as potential homes are displaced by community gardens. Less-dense cities mean more driving and more carbon emissions. Transportation only accounts for 11 percent of the carbon embodied in food anyway, according to a 2008 study by researchers at Carnegie Mellon 83 percent comes from production.

Economies of Scale

A local food production system would largely upend long-term trends of growing farm size and increasing concentration in food processing and marketing. Local “food sheds” couldn’t support the scale of farming and food processing operations that exist today—and that’s kind of the point. Large, monocrop farms are more dependent on synthetic fertilizers and tilling operations than small polycrop farms, and they face greater pest pressure and waste disposal problems that can lead to environmental damage.

But large operations are also more efficient at converting inputs into outputs. Agricultural economists at UC Davis, for instance, analyzed farm-level surveys from 1996-2000 and concluded that there are “significant” scale economies in modern agriculture and that small farms are “high cost” operations. Absent the efficiencies of large farms, the use of polluting inputs would rise, as would food production costs, which would lea
d to more expensive food.

Health Implications

A local food system would raise the cost of food by constraining the efficient allocation of resources. The monetary costs of increased input demands from forsaken gains from trade and scale economies will directly bear on consumer welfare by increasing the costs of food. And, as we try to tackle obesity, locavorism is likely to raise the cost of precisely the wrong foods. Grains can be grown cheaply across much of the country, but the costs of growing produce outside specific, limited regions increase quickly. Thus, nutrient-dense calories like fruits and vegetables become more expensive, while high fructose corn syrup becomes relatively cheaper.

Finally, higher costs on certain foods may be a solution to the big health challenge in the developed world. But higher prices on any food are precisely the wrong prescription for the great health problems in the developing world, where millions remain undernourished. As the food crisis of 2007-08 revealed, winning the war on human hunger requires a constant commitment to getting more food out of less land, water, and other inputs.

From roughly 1940 to 1990, the world’s farmers doubled their output to accommodate a doubling of the world population. And they did it on a shrinking base of cropland. Agricultural productivity can continue to grow, but not by turning back the clock. Local foods may have a place in the market. But they should stand on their own, and local food consumers should understand that they aren’t necessarily buying something that helps the planet, and it may hurt the poor.

Eric M. Jones.

Something to consider: Corned Beef

Local (especially European product) is put into a brine and spice solution, sealed in a vat and allowed to naturally marinate for some months while soaking up all the flavors.

Modern Big Industry: Meat is thrown onto a conveyor where stainless steel needles inject brine and spices at high-pressure, then mechanical hammers soften up the meat and distribute the marinate. Then they wrap it in plastic and it's on its way to you.

Result: The modern Big Industry stuff is far tastier and much cheaper. Small producers don't stand a chance.

Philippe

Why don't the guys who points out how numbers have no meaning ever take apart these anti-locavore posts?

Would this not naturally occur as a byproduct of fuel and transportation costs? I understand that forcing local agriculture ignores comparative advantage, but wouldn't this advantage cease to exist if the shipping costs increased enough? As fuel costs, and thus transportation costs, increase, the economies of scale will lose their advantage, and local agriculture seems to be the only solution.

Enter your name.

Transportation costs are such a small part of the equation, and the comparative advantage so large, that transportation costs would have to approximately quadruple to matter for most goods.

To give a somewhat extreme example: Idaho's advantage for producing potatoes is basically 100% compared to the deep south. Idaho's extra transportation costs are just 10% to 15%. The cost of transportation would have to go up seven to ten times to make them equally competitive.

(Remember that "fuel" is not the same as transportation. Fuel is used on the farm, even when you're selling only to people within bicycle distance.)

Eric M. Jones

I think it is useful to ask the broader question: Is "Local" the best way to go for all production? Should you buy local pottery instead of pottery made in England or Japan (e.g.)? Can't your local tailor sew up clothes as good as Givenchy can?

Peter Lange

There seems to be one flaw in this argument, and I readily conceed that I may just be reading this wrong, but it seems to me that the argument is that food production will be less efficient because, for example, Alabama is not as inducive to growing potatos as Idaho is. This is only a concern though if the local food movement is intent on providing the same level of diversity in food that we currently enjoy. If, instead, we concentrate on crops that excel in our local environment, then the only real hurdle would be those presented by scale.

Is anyone really under the assumption that localized food sourcing means that farmers that have never grown oranges because their region doesn't have the climate for it will start growing that oranges? I find that very hard to believe. My biggest issue with industrial food production is its high reliance on unnatural preservatives and love affair with high fructose corn syrup and other additives that help people get fatter for cheap. No one would have a problem with Cargill, etc. if they operated under ethical means to produce food that isn't genetically enhanced. Industry titans have the power to do it, but they won't, no matter what their ad campaigns tell you. The only way to change this whole system would be to operate under a standard industry-wide code of ethics not exactly a foreseeable proposition.

Enter your name.

None of that is really relevant: An ear of corn grown next door has exactly the same preservatives and additives as one grown 2,000 miles away.

And yes, there are ignorant people who believe the upper Midwest is a great place to grow strawberries and oranges, and who support locavore movements without realizing that they are effectively supporting a complete absence of fresh produce in their own supermarkets for several months each year (or growing everything in a petroleum-powered hot house at enormous expense to both the consumer and the environment).

Aepxc

Complexity, efficiency, robustness (i.e. flexibility/adaptability).

Pick your two, because you cannot have all three.

Eric Lai

In terms of feeding the world's increasing population, I think the key factor is not that people eat local -- it's that people reduce their consumption of (and thus the demand for) industrially raised meat products. A daunting proportion of our corn, soybeans, and other crops are used to feed animals instead of people.

A 1997 study out of Cornell indicates that "if all the grain currently fed to livestock in the United States were consumed directly by people, the number of people who could be fed would be nearly 800 million" (http://www.news.cornell.edu/releases/aug97/livestock.hrs.html).

The benefits of a reduced emphasis on meat production/consumption would be manifold not only would producing less meat free up grain and help alleviate hunger, the health of the public would also benefit from reduced meat consumption.

You use Corn and Soybeans as the crops (and potatoes) for making assumptions about the local food movement. That does not make sense as those are a large scale crops. What about looking all the other fruits and veggies that are grown? Lettuce, berries, apples, carrots etc. Buying local with those make sense in regards to health, fuel consumption, etc. Sure, to get my local corn syrup supply from the farmer down the road I would need more cropland. But what about the everyday fruits, veggies, and meat we eat?

It is very cheap to truck or boat food from around the world. It will always be cheaper. But basing an anti-local movement based on corn and soybeans makes no sense to me.

Enter your name.

Most of the foods you eat are those large-scale crops. The bulk of the typical human diet is grains, not fruit. Look at the plant foods on your breakfast plate: toast, bagels, muffins, and cereal are grains. The contribution of berries, if any, is present only in that thin veneer of jam.

Swintah

Well, it sounds like you can enjoy you efficient, cheap, tasteless monocultured grains and straches and I can enjoy my inefficient, expensive, delicious locally grown and harvested meats and produce. You can also enjoy being dependent on an exploitative agribusiness and all the global infrastructure it relies upon and the nasty side effects of a diet high in starches and grains, while I enjoy getting my food from my rural neighbors and all the wonderful side effects of a diet high in nutrition and flavor.

Pawel

Steve, this is completely wrong as you are projecting the current ill production methods of food onto the local farmer in your hypothetical. Study the farming style of Joel F. Salatin and his farming and please revisit the assumptions in this article http://www.polyfacefarms.com/

DagnyG

Yes, local food production is less efficient than a centralized system. That's good, because the opposite of efficiency is resilency and robustness.

Peter

You seem to be relying on a key assumption yourselves: that what can be produced in California or Idaho must also be produced in Alabama. This is not, to my knowledge, a part of the eat local movement. Rather it would prefer eaters to enjoy the foods local to their region, a big change. But what that means, as described in the dilemma, is that you can't/shouldn't get apples outside the north east, as it is a local NE crop.

The other argument, is that there are certain externalities of the current food system, such as pollution, soil erosion, fattier meats, and fossil fuel consumption, that rather than internalized through taxation, are actually subsidized. The argument is made then, small, poly-crop farms, such as polyface, are more efficient in that they limit some of these externalities.

There is, however a compelling case to be made that the efficiencies of polyface, cannot be translated into a system to feed 7 billion. Or that consumers will not sacrifice the variety afforded to them by the modern system.

Pawel

Not to mention that, modern manufacturing of food itself is energy rich, you are transporting not only the killed cows but you are transporting the corn you feed them using combustion engines to do the work that on an organic farm a grass fed cow does her self by just walking around and munching on grass. the current mass manufacture methods are of food are completely unsustainable from that energy perspective. That is before you go into the health issues and drugs required to keep the cows alive in the modern manufacturing process versus the lot stronger grass fed cow with its own healthy immune system.

Interesting. I think this must be directed at some audience that the author believes wants to fully replace modern agro business. I see small/local/urban agriculture as enhancing the current system.

Consider. What are we really talking about if not creating or repurposing greenspaces? To me that suggests there are a host of positive externalities that the author didn't consider. Urban heat island reduction, the clean up of brownfields and wasted or disused urban spaces, the opportunity use gardens as a lab to teach science and social design and the health benefits of community gardening as an activity spring to mind.

Moreover, many if not most, local farmers who favor this sort of growing promote organic methods. Simply subtracting the benefit of industrial scale to make claims about fertilizer/chemical requirements is specious as it doesn't take into account farming methods that obviate the need for those products.

You also have to consider that in many cases these projects are being run on a nonprofit basis, so that is a cost reducer. : )

I would also add that the author uses industrial ag's formulation that maximum calorie production equals ending hunger. But as is become clear with the plauge of first world obesity, calories might fill stomachs but that doesn't mean the food produced is nutritious or healthy. A fair assessment would take into account the long term health costs of a highly processed diet.

Obviously, we are going to need industrial agro business for many years to come but there should be space for experimenting with alternatives and assessments of relative value of those alternatives needs greater scope.

John B

Like many of the writers, I enjoy going to farmers' markets and buying locally grown food.

Unlike many writers, I do not have the ego to force my preferences on millions of people who live in cities or who cannot afford to do this.

Go into stores in New York City and try to imagine how many "local farms" would need to exist to provide fruits and vegetables to 8 million people. There would quickly be food riots and starvation due to the lack of food--because you won't allow mass produced or non-local food (no Idaho potatos!).

There are farmers' markets in NYC and they are well received. But they serve a tiny % of the population.

Making it harder to feed people is not a good policy.

Suzanne Lainson

As others have said, the goal isn't to duplicate agri-business on a local scale. We don't really want to grow our own soybeans. However, planting gardens in our backyards can give us fresh vegetables. Much of the mass produced crops in the US go to feeding animals or for energy. If we changed our diets, ate less meat, and maybe had some egg laying chickens in our backyards, we could grow highly nutritious foods efficiently and locally.

There are some very interesting urban garden experiments where warehouses are being turned into profitable vegetable gardens that sell to local businesses and consumers. The current business model for agriculture could be replaced by new business models that create growing environments in places never before used. We have focused on land for crop growing because we used to have lots of it. But if we focus on how to turn more underutilized space in cities and suburbs into growing machines, a lot more creative solutions will likely open up.


Top 10: Utah&aposs signature foods

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Even though you can throw everything you buy into one bag, don't keep it there for long. Bring separate bags if you're going to buy meat and dairy alongside your fruits and veggies you don't want juices contaminating them. Also, be sure to wash your produce as soon as you get home and store in a cool, dry place. E. Coli, Salmonella, Listeria and other viruses may contaminate the fruits and veggies during harvesting, no matter how careful the farmers pick them. P.S. Check out these 35 Easy Ways to Know Which Produce to Pick!


Dinger Dog

4 to 8 ounces crispy onion straws or raw onions

Butter, for toasting buns (optional)

Line rimmed baking sheet with aluminum foil and set a wire rack on top.

Wrap each hot dog with two pieces of bacon. Place wrapped hot dogs on the wire rack. Bake 20 to 30 minutes or until bacon reaches desired crispiness.

Slice buns. Butter and toast if desired.

Heat nacho cheese just before assembling.

Place bacon-wrapped hot dog in bun. Top with nacho cheese, crispy onions and barbecue sauce.

(Recipe from Wisconsin Timber Rattlers)

The Dinger Dog is messy and (depending on your culinary presentation skills) may not earn a lot of Instagram likes, but the lineup of ingredients delivers a home run of flavors. (Photo: Daniel HIggins/USA TODAY NETWORK-Wisconsin)

TASTING NOTES: Delicious. Dangerously so.

EQUIPMENT: Rimmed baking sheet, wire rack, bread knife, spoon and microwave safe bowl. If you want to cook the bacon and hot dogs separately and then wrap it, add the necessary pots and pans to the list. There's no need to measure exact ounces of nacho cheese, barbecue sauce and fried onions. Those measurements are a reference to make sure you buy large enough quantities while shopping.

PRACTICALITY: Minimal dishes, short and simple ingredient list and common kitchen equipment make this look like an easy recipe. Wrapping the hot dog in bacon and keeping fried onion pieces from falling off requires some concentration and might be frustrating if rushed — which may make it NSFW (Not Safe For Worknight) meals.

That's not a bad thing. A hot dog wrapped in bacon and topped with nacho cheese shouldn't be a regular in a menu lineup. The Dinger Dog is best used as a pinch hitter for special occasions when you have time to fiddle with the presentation. Like, say, opening day of the baseball season.

COST: $12 to $15. Prices may vary more depending on your choice of hot dogs and bacon.

Hot dog wrapped in bacon and baked in the oven (left) was easier to manage than cooking bacon and hot separately before wrapping (right). (Photo: Daniel HIggins/USA TODAY NETWORK-Wisconsin)

HACKS/INSIGHTS: I tried two methods for wrapping the hot dogs in bacon. One was to cook the bacon until done but not crisp, then panfry the hot dogs as the bacon cooled and wrap each cooked hot dog before assembling. I struggled to wrap the bacon evenly around the hot dogs.

I liked wrapping the hot dogs in bacon then baking in the oven (as stated in the instructions). If following this method, go big on the dogs but not the bacon. I used Cher-Make's Big W Dog, which weigh in at nearly 3 ounces each. Bigger hot dogs fill out pretzel buns better and are less likely to split before the bacon fully cooks. I used regular cut bacon and still had plenty of smoky pork flavor in each bite.

The toasted bun is a nice touch, but not necessary. If you want to skip this step to save on cleaning extra dishes, nobody's going to complain.

The topping order for the Dinger Dog should start with nacho cheese. (Photo: Daniel HIggins/USA TODAY NETWORK-Wisconsin)

Order matters when building these dogs. Cover the hot dog in nacho cheese, then top with onions and barbecue sauce. Without the cheese to hold them in place, the fried onion bits scatter and create more a mess than necessary.

Oh, this is a multiple napkin food no matter how you stack it. It's worth it, just be prepared.


Celery Recipes That Are Freakishly Delicious (PHOTOS)

You there. Yes, you. The one with the head of celery languishing in the crisper. We know you probably bought it to make tuna salad, or to dice into mirepoix for a soup, and now it's just going to sit there, destined either for the stock pot or the garbage can. Although celery root has recently become celery's glamorous sibling, we think plain old celery deserves a second look.

We never really think about how divisive celery can sometimes be, until someone boldly proclaims that they hate it, and then we have to defend its honor. Celery gets a really bad rap, and we ritualistically forget that its crunch and water content are important to tons of dishes that we normally enjoy. We happen to think that a stalk of celery is the perfect vessel for a portion of pimento cheese. We love it pickled and even stir fried as the star of the show. While we were out trying to find your new favorite celery recipe, we stumbled across an amazing suggestion to spread celery with sweet butter and sprinkle it with salt.

We think you should give celery one more try. If only for all the times it's sat sadly next to your Buffalo wings, lonely and jealous.


What You Get With Organic

For starters, consumers need to know that local and organic are not the same thing. “In order to call your produce organic, you [the farmer] have to be certified by the USDA,” says Joe Masabni, Ph.D., a vegetable specialist at the Texas A&M AgriLife Research & Extension Center in Overton.“There is paperwork to fill out, processes to follow, and you have to be approved.” A certification agency accredited by the Department of Agriculture checks annually that the farm is complying with organic standards. The exception: Farmers with yearly sales of less than $5,000 do not need to be certified to use the term organic.

Organic growers are prohibited from using most synthetic pesticides and fertilizers, as well as antibiotics (which conventional farmers may use on animals and certain fruit trees). Organic farmers also must take measures to protect water and soil quality.

The USDA Organic seal is “your guarantee that the food you’re buying was produced in ways that minimize harm to health and the environment,” says Charlotte Vallaeys, senior policy analyst at CR and a sustainability expert.


Hawaii Regional Cuisine

It’s been said that a melting pot is not the most accurate way to describe Hawaii’s multiethnic population. It’s more like a stew, where all the flavors complement and influence one another but the ingredients retain their richness and integrity instead of melting into an even sameness. Nothing tells the story of arrival, intermingling and reinvention of cultural traditions on the islands as deliciously as the variety of cuisines that make Hawaii a foodie wonderland. It all starts with Hawaii’s first people, the Native Hawaiians.

Stewards of an island chain in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, Native Hawaiians knew how to live sustainably. They partitioned segments of each island into ahupuaa (land divisions), where people were given the responsibility and privilege to manage the resources in their portion of the mountains, lowlands or ocean. The Hawaiians had a genius for engineering, constructing vast irrigation systems to supply water to terraced farms. They grew the “canoe crops” the first Hawaiians brought with them to the islands, including kalo (taro), uala (sweet potato), maia (banana), ko (sugarcane) and ulu (breadfruit). The ocean provided a variety of fish, but it was the Hawaiians’ innovative construction of massive fishponds that allowed them to manage a constant supply. These were all standard ingredients in a simple Hawaiian meal, and many of them appear on menus in classical as well as new, fanciful renditions as chefs pay homage to the original cuisine of the islands.

The Birth of “Local” Food

Beginning in 1778, whalers, missionaries and traders arrived in Hawaii, bringing cuisine from their homelands with them. Then, in 1852, waves of contract laborers started to come to Hawaii to work on the sugar plantations. They brought with them traditional recipes and unique blends of ingredients from China, Japan, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Okinawa and the Philippine Islands.

It was only a matter of time before the culinary creations of these cohabitating cultures would interact with each other, exemplified in dishes that are now called “local,” such as a plate lunch of hot dog chow fun, macaroni salad and kimchi. These uniquely local combinations are undeniably comfort foods, even for diners who did not grow up eating them.

Hawaii Regional Cuisine

Following Statehood and World War II, Hawaii’s visitor numbers grew, along with its hotel accommodations. Restaurants that catered to visitors used food that was shipped from elsewhere over long distances, and their menus copied American recipes, leading to unmemorable meals and negative perceptions about Hawaii’s food scene. It wasn’t until 1991 that a group of 12 Hawaii chefs got together to change everything.

A food revolution, Hawaii Regional Cuisine was started by chefs Sam Choy, Philippe Padovani, Roger Dikon, Gary Strehl, Roy Yamaguchi, Amy Ferguson Ota, Jean-Marie Josselin, George Mavrothalassitis, Beverly Gannon, Peter Ellman, Peter Merriman and Alan Wong. Their vision was to put Hawaii on the map as a major culinary destination. Their approach was to build a network of farmers and ranchers they could source from, combining locally grown food with ethnic flavors already present in Hawaii for a grand fusion of the islands’ unique resources: a pristine environment and a colorful array of cultures. Their revolution was a stunning success.

Now almost 30 years later, Hawaii’s restaurants source many of their ingredients within the islands. Cattle raised on the upland pastures of Hawaii Island, fruits and vegetables grown from rich, volcanic soil in Upcountry Maui, some of the highest quality fish in the world, Waialua chocolate, and hearts of palm, and of course the foundational canoe crops brought by the Native Hawaiians.

Restaurants by the pioneers of Hawaii Regional Cuisine: Alan Wong’s Restaurant, Haliimaile General Store by Beverly Gannon, Roy’s, Merriman’s